Human sociocultural evolution has been documented throughout the history of humans and earlier hominins. This evolution manifests itself through development from tools as simple as a rock used to break nuts, to something as complex as a spaceship able to land man on other planets. Equally, we have witnessed evolution of human population towards complex multilevel social organisation.
Although cases of decrease and loss of this type of complexity have been reported, in global terms it tends to increase with time. Despite its significance, the conditions and the factors driving this increase are still poorly understood and subject to debate. Different hypothesis trying to explain the rise of sociocultural complexity in human societies have been proposed (demographic factor, cognitive component, historical contingency…) but so far no consensus has been reached.
Here we raise a number of questions:
- Can we better define sociocultural complexity and confirm its general tendency to increase over the course of human history?
- What are the main factors enablingan increase of cultural complexity?
- Are there reliable way to measure the complexity in material culture and social organisationconstructs, that is?
- How can we quantify and compare the impact of different factors?
- What causes a loss of cultural complexity in a society? And how often these losses occurred in the past?